Wednesday, March 18, 2020
The Rise of Jeffersonian Democracy essays Though the American War of Independence had simmered and officially ended by the turn of the eighteenth century, another revolution was rising within the United States. Immediately following the Treaty of Paris was an era of political upheaval in the states. Stability was in sight after the formation of the Federalist Party. However, conflicting views were rampant in the new republic, mainly in the opposing political party of Jeffersonians. These political views gained more and momentum until the Revolution of 1800, where the entire system of government was changed in a peaceful movement. Thus, the first three decades of the United States marked a period of instability and inner struggles. Following the expulsion of British politics in America came confusion regarding the new United States government. After the Articles of Confederation were drafted, the United States became a confederation of thirteen states with a weak central government. However, a group of people, led by Alexander Hamilton, proposed re-writing the political order of the country. They advocated a federal government, with a strong central nucleus. This group of advocators became known as the federalists, with policies similar to the Tories of Great Britain. As a result, the Constitution of the United States was drafted and ratified by the necessary amount of states. The first president, George Washington, was greatly influenced by Federalist Hamilton. Following the Whiskey Rebellion, George Washington sent a militia out to silence these radicals. This increased his power and the power of the federal government dramatically. Also, the Bill of Rights was established, giving the common man m any essentials rights. In addition to these, the tenth amendment allowed states some power over issues that the central government did not control. However, some states wanted more sovereignty over the central government. This group of people advocated...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Ver Conjugation in Spanish, Translation, and Examples The Spanish verb ver means to see or to watch. Its conjugation is mostly regular, although the pattern varies in the past participle, visto (seen), and the first-person singular present, veo (I see). Other verbs derived from ver, such as prever (to preview or to foresee) and entrever (to partly see or to suspect), follow the same conjugation pattern. A verb that is similar in meaning is mirar, which can be translated as to look. This article includes ver conjugations in the indicative mood (present, past, conditional and future), the subjunctive mood (present and past), the imperative mood, and other verb forms. Present Indicative The first person singular conjugation veo is slightly irregular. Normally we would remove the ending -er before adding the present tense ending -o, but in this case, the e in ver stays to produce veo. Yo veo Yo veo las noticias todos los dÃ as. I watch the news every day. TÃ º ves TÃ º ves a tu hija bailar. You watch your daughter dance. Usted/Ã ©l/ella ve Ella ve una pelÃ cula con su amiga. She watches a movie with her friend. Nosotros vemos Nosotros vemos a muchos pacientes en la clÃ nica. We see many patients at the clinic. Vosotros veis Vosotros veis a vuestra abuela frecuentemente. You see your grandmother frequently. Ustedes/ellos/ellas ven Ellos ven muchas cosas interesantes en el museo. They see many interesting things at the museum. Preterite Indicative The preterite is used to talk about completed events in the past. Yo vi Yo vi las noticias todos los dÃ as. I watched the news every day. TÃ º viste TÃ º viste a tu hija bailar. You watched your daughter dance. Usted/Ã ©l/ella vio Ella vio una pelÃ cula con su amiga. She watched a movie with her friend. Nosotros vimos Nosotros vimos a muchos pacientes en la clÃ nica. We saw many patients at the clinic. Vosotros visteis Vosotros visteis a vuestra abuela frecuentemente. You saw your grandma frequently. Ustedes/ellos/ellas vieron Ellos vieron muchas cosas interesantes en el museo. They saw many interesting things at the museum. Imperfect Indicative The imperfect is used to talk about ongoing or repeated actions in the past. It can be translated as was watching or used to watch. Yo veÃ a Yo veÃ a las noticias todos los dÃ as. I used to watch the news every day. TÃ º veÃ as TÃ º veÃ as a tu hija bailar. You used to watch your daughter dance. Usted/Ã ©l/ella veÃ a Ella veÃ a una pelÃ cula con su amiga. She used to watch a movie with her friend. Nosotros veÃ amos Nosotros veÃ amos a muchos pacientes en la clÃ nica. We used to see many patients at the clinic. Vosotros veÃ ais Vosotros veÃ ais a vuestra abuela frecuentemente. You used to see your grandma frequently. Ustedes/ellos/ellas veÃ an Ellos veÃ an muchas cosas interesantes en el museo. They used to see many interesting things at the museum. Future Indicative Yo verÃ © Yo verÃ © las noticias todos los dÃ as. I will watch the news every day. TÃ º vers TÃ º vers a tu hija bailar. You will watch your daughter dance. Usted/Ã ©l/ella ver Ella ver una pelÃ cula con su amiga. She will watch a movie with her friend. Nosotros veremos Nosotros veremos a muchos pacientes en la clÃ nica. We will see many patients at the clinic. Vosotros verÃ ©is Vosotros verÃ ©is a vuestra abuela frecuentemente. You will seeyour grandma frequently. Ustedes/ellos/ellas vern Ellos vern muchas cosas interesantes en el museo. They will see many interesting things at the museum. PeriphrasticÃ Future IndicativeÃ The periphrastic future is formed with three parts: the present tense conjugation of the verb ir (to go), the preposition a, and the infinitive of the verb. Yo voy a ver Yo voya ver las noticias todos los dÃ as. I am going to watch the news every day. TÃ º vasa ver TÃ º vasa ver a tu hija bailar. You aregoing to watch your daughter dance. Usted/Ã ©l/ella vaa ver Ella vaa ver una pelÃ cula con su amiga. She isgoing to watch a movie with her friend. Nosotros vamosa ver Nosotros vamosa ver a muchos pacientes en la clÃ nica. We aregoing to see many patients at the clinic. Vosotros vaisa ver Vosotros vaisa ver a vuestra abuela frecuentemente. You aregoing to seeyour grandma frequently. Ustedes/ellos/ellas vana ver Ellos vana ver muchas cosas interesantes en el museo. They aregoing to see many interesting things at the museum. Present Progressive/Gerund Form The progressive tenses use the verb estar with the gerund form viendo. Present Progressive ofVer est viendo Ella est viendo a su hija bailar. She is watching her daughter dance. Ver Past Participle The past participle is used to form perfect tenses like the present perfect. Usually the past participle of -er verbs is formed with the ending -ido, but ver is irregular since its past participle is visto. Present Perfect of Ver ha visto Ella ha visto a su hija bailar. She has watched her daughter dance. Ver Conditional Indicative The conditional tense is usually translated to English as would verb. Yo verÃ a Yo verÃ a las noticias todos los dÃ as si no me durmiera tan temprano. I would watch the news every day if I didn't fall asleep so early. TÃ º verÃ as TÃ º verÃ as a tu hija bailar si no estuvieras ocupada. You would watch your daughter dance if you were not busy. Usted/Ã ©l/ella verÃ a Ella verÃ a una pelÃ cula con su amiga, pero no se ponen de acuerdo en la pelÃ cula. She would watch a movie with her friend, but they don't agree on a movie. Nosotros verÃ amos Nosotros verÃ amos a muchos pacientes en la clÃ nica si tuviÃ ©ramos ms doctores. We would see many patients at the clinic if we had more doctors. Vosotros verÃ ais Vosotros verÃ ais a vuestra abuela frecuentemente si vivierais ms cerca. You would seeyour grandma frequently if you lived closer. Ustedes/ellos/ellas verÃ an Ellos verÃ an muchas cosas interesantes en el museo si tuvieran ms tiempo. They would see many interesting things at the museum if they had more time. Ver Present Subjunctive Que yo vea Mi profesor sugiere que yo vea las noticias todos los dÃ as. My professor suggests that I watch the news every day. Que tÃ º veas La instructora pide que tÃ º veas a tu hija bailar. The instructor asks that you watch your daughter dance. Que usted/Ã ©l/ella vea Carlos espera que ella vea una pelÃ cula con su amiga. Carlos hopes that she watches a movie with her friend. Que nosotros veamos El joven espera que nosotros veamos a muchos pacientes en la clÃ nica. The young man hopes that we see many patients at the clinic. Que vosotros veis Vuestra madre espera que vosotros veis a vuestra abuela frecuentemente. Your mother hopes that you see your grandmother frequently. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas vean Pedro recomienda que ellos vean muchas cosas interesantes en el museo. Pedro recommends that they see many interesting things at the museum. Ver Imperfect Subjunctive The imperfect subjunctive is used similarly to the present subjunctive, but in situations that happened in the past. There are two options for conjugating the imperfect subjunctive: Option 1 Que yo viera Mi profesor sugerÃ a que yo viera las noticias todos los dÃ as. My professor suggested that I watch the news every day. Que tÃ º vieras La instructora pedÃ a que tÃ º vieras a tu hija bailar. The instructor asked that you watch your daughter dance. Que usted/Ã ©l/ella viera Carlos esperaba que ella viera una pelÃ cula con su amiga. Carlos hoped that she watch a movie with her friend. Que nosotros viÃ ©ramos El joven esperaba que nosotros viÃ ©ramos a muchos pacientes en la clÃ nica. The young man hoped that we see many patients at the clinic. Que vosotros vierais Vuestra madre esperaba que vosotros vierais a vuestra abuela frecuentemente. Your mother hoped that you see your grandmother frequently. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas vieran Pedro recomendaba que ellos vieran muchas cosas interesantes en el museo. Pedro recommended that they see many interesting things at the museum. Option 2 Que yo viese Mi profesor sugerÃ a que yo viese las noticias todos los dÃ as. My professor suggested that I watch the news every day. Que tÃ º vieses La instructora pedÃ a que tÃ º vieses a tu hija bailar. The instructor asked that you watch your daughter dance. Que usted/Ã ©l/ella viese Carlos esperaba que ella viese una pelÃ cula con su amiga. Carlos hoped that she watch a movie with her friend. Que nosotros viÃ ©semos El joven esperaba que nosotros viÃ ©semos a muchos pacientes en la clÃ nica. The young man hoped that we see many patients at the clinic. Que vosotros vieseis Vuestra madre esperaba que vosotros vieseis a vuestra abuela frecuentemente. Your mother hoped that you see your grandmother frequently. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas viesen Pedro recomendaba que ellos viesen muchas cosas interesantes en el museo. Pedro recommended that they see many interesting things at the museum. Ver Imperative The imperative mood has both positive and negative forms, which are used to give commands. Positive Commands TÃ º ve Ã ¡Ve a tu hija bailar! Watch your daughter dance! Usted vea Ã ¡Vea una pelÃ cula con su amiga! Watch a movie with your friend! Nosotros veamos Ã ¡Veamos a muchos pacientes en la clÃ nica! Let's see many patients at the clinic! Vosotros ved Ã ¡Ved a tu abuela frecuentemente! See your grandma frequently! Ustedes vean Ã ¡Vean muchas cosas interesantes en el museo! See many interesting things at the museum! Negative Commands TÃ º no veas Ã ¡No veas a tu hija bailar! Don't watch your daughter dance! Usted no vea Ã ¡No vea una pelÃ cula con su amiga! Don't watch a movie with your friend! Nosotros no veamos Ã ¡No veamos a muchos pacientes en la clÃ nica! Let's not see many patients at the clinic! Vosotros no veis Ã ¡No veis a tu abuela frecuentemente! Don't see your grandma frequently! Ustedes no vean Ã ¡No vean muchas cosas interesantes en el museo! Don't see many interesting things at the museum!
Friday, February 14, 2020
Functional Area Interrelationships-Kuddler Fine Foods - Essay Example Collaboration among the departments can be improved if the company introduce Balance Scorecard (BSC) as a part of management control system. Unlike traditional management strategy it not just focus on the financial performance; rather it also takes other non-financial prospective into consideration. First of all financial prospective should be used determine how financially the company should appear in front of the shareholders like the ROI, profit margin, annual growth in the revenue and so on . The second prospective should be internal business processes. This will assist the company to understand that for satisfying the customers and the stakeholders which processes should be improved. It means the core competency of the company. The third one should be learning and growth. To retain competitiveness, a company should pay attention towards learning and growth of its human resource through training and development program. Finally, the customer prospective should be used to identify that how the company must appear in front of the customers so that it can achieve its vision and mission. This can be done by better customer relationship management, following relationship management strategy and improving customer satisfaction level. ... With the guidance of top management, objective should be selected, the measures should be pointed out, to achieve the objective required targets should be assigned and finally the initiative should be assigned. Managers of different departments should share their view with each other while developing the BSC for the organisation. Once the plan is over, the human resource should be encouraged to participate in the implementation process. They should be given required training as this will motivate them to be part of the whole process. The plan should be executed in part by part manner so that it can be monitored effectively. The BSC system should be evaluated on regular interval to make required changes as this will retain its utility in the organisation. Some of the vital steps are discussed below: Figure 2: Steps to be followed while developing BSC in the organisation (Source: Kaplan & Norton, 2002, p.275) Part-2 Use of lateral collaboration and vertical collaboration within the org anization, and the action plan to use lateral and vertical collaboration Companies take into account vertical as well as horizontal integration to use its resources effectively and to gain synergy (Camarinha-Matos, 2002, p.28). Kudler Fine Foods should also collaborate both vertically as well as horizontally to improve its competitiveness in the market. Through vertical integration, Kudler Fine Foods will bring together all the parts of value chain under its control. For backward integration, the company should invest in the farmers that supply the fresh products. Kudler Fine Foods can also purchase some of the bakery whose products are sold in the stores. In this manner the company will have better control on its supply of material. For foreword integration, Kudler Fine Foods should
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Linguistics - Essay Example The paper throws light on language as a device for communication, which gives people a means of comprehending each other. According to some English dictionaries the word Ã¢â¬Å"ainÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ is considered inappropriate. However, words are not described by short, clever explanations but are defined by the experiences of the listening. Language is known to change frequently. It is sometimes difficult to comprehend someone who uses terms, words or phrases that you have never heard before. The descriptive approach suggests that people should study language as it is rather than taking the models of language and enforcing them on people. As linguists affirm that the need of updating language manuals and dictionaries is becoming more vital. This materializes since new technologies, ideas, concepts, and new styles of communication and words shape themselves within the people and supplant older ones. Industries and sciences develop new concepts and technologies daily. Therefore, they ou ght to be and are being mirrored in our day-to-day language, acknowledged in our daily life. Particular words change their connotation; some become obsolete, others gain new meanings which are diverse from earlier ones. Alterations such as the creation of new words, concepts and ideas are not happening in some specific language, but in most of the languages in the world. Descripts suggest there is a need to study and understand words and languages or in other words describe them. (Rogers, p. 81). Supporters of descriptive approach claim that it is imperative to know them, notice, contemplate and become used to the vicissitudes. Not only does the industry influence the language, but the language is also influenced by it too. In his graft David Crystal explicated this portent as follows: "This would form a fragment of a much broader economic perspective, in which the traditional view, that the economy influences language, is supplemented by the notion that language exercises a strong influence on the economy. There are several domains in which languages play an important role, and thus contribute to their economic success" (Crystal, p. 172). As prescripts argue that there is a need for people to learn how to pronounce words and speak the languages since new and alternative words appear to name new things and processes, new idiomatic expressions, metaphors, similes and spellings appear to express older ones which are progressively getting out of use. Therefore, prescripts claim that these innovations sometimes stay undetected or not much responsiveness is paid to them. They become parts of our day-to-day communication and are used as though there is nothing new in them and hence there is more to be done than just describing them (Renouf & Kehoe, p. 31). Nonetheless, supporters of descriptive approach claim that if the change is recognized, it can face two likely reactions. The first one entails noting on them, trying to describe and categorize them, determining w hether to take them or not or merely accommodating them without any reservations. This is what is involved in descriptive approach. The approach intends to clearly and precisely define how some features of the language are made use of in communication (Kroch, p. 90). On the other hand, this may result to the comprehension that all the etymological units have same the features and may be categorized similarly. Contemporary linguists have a preference of applying descriptive approach to language since it does not necessitate them to decide what the language must look like or recommend what particular rules must be used. The descriptive approach obliges them only to define what language is, what fresh changes have surfaced, what their basic qualities are, and in what way are they used in communication
Friday, January 24, 2020
India is a captivating country full of humble traditions, lively festivals, and honest beliefs. With over 2 billion people, India has a vast array of religions and languages with Hindi being the most popular. The Hindu culture is a culture of love, respect, honoring others and humbling one's own ego so that the inner nature, which is naturally pure and modest, will shine forth (Mailerindia Infotek Limited). Hindi is a kind and peaceful religion. It is only fitting to combine a temperate religion with a humble society of people. Indians were raised to treat their elders with respect and to always be humble to guests. Strangers will great you with the utmost benevolence and friends will invite you into their home and make sure you are treated like royalty. However, once families have decided to immigrate to America, these traditions and customs can become endangered. People of all different religions and races find that America is the best place to immigrate to so they can earn a better education and more money for their hard work. Indians are among the most educated and wealthiest subgroups in America so most donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a hard time finding jobs and earning good pay. In a study of the impact of emigration from India, Mihir Desai of Harvard University found that 1 million Indians lived in the United States in 2001 (Gerdes 14). Since 2001, there have been reports that this number has more than doubled though still the majority of all Indians practice Hinduism. Hinduism is the practice of worshipers who continuously strive to be liberated from evil spirits while practicing the worship of deities. Hinduism refers to a vast array of religious movements. Unlike religions Ã¢â¬Å"of the book,Ã¢â¬ there is no single authoritative text and no re... ... Immigrant Soul.Ã¢â¬ Writing On The River, Ed. Jessica Portz. Second Edition Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2009. 112. The quote that I chose from this story helped me to prove that all morals and beliefs are endangered when you move into a different environment that you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t use to. Rishi. Ã¢â¬Å"The Meaning Of Culture.Ã¢â¬ Mailerindia.com. Mailerindia Infotek Limited. MAILERINDIA.COM. , n.d., 2 April 2012. . This website gave me a really good quote to use in my essay pertaining to the genuine nature of the Hindi culture. Williams, Amy and DePaul, Amy. Ã¢â¬Å"The Rise Of Arranged Marriage In America.Ã¢â¬ AlterNet. n.p. 9 August 2008. Web. 3 April 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"The Rise Of Arranged Marriage In AmericaÃ¢â¬ was an interesting article in which I obtained valid points on how arranged marriages can be beneficial within specific cultures.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Understanding of children and adults with learning disabilities has come full circle but has a long way to do to fully reach every individual. In the 4th century the great philosopher Aristotle wrote,Ã¢â¬ As to the exposure and rearing of children, let there be a law that no deformed child shall liveÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Hardman, Drew, & Egar, 2011) While this seems brutal, for the times it was quite common. Even modern era societal groups like the Nazis in the 1940s had Ã¢â¬Å"cleansing programs,Ã¢â¬ were thousands of people with various disabilities were deemed useless and simply put to death like dogs and cats. Today we as a society try to better understand the trials of people with disabilites and help them to succeed in schools. Federal groups like Individuals with disabilities Education Act(IDEA) and the Americans with Disablilites Act(ADA) have pushed our thinking and laws to the future. Although there is a lot more that needs to be done we are moving in the right direction. A Sad Beginning As mentioned above there was not just a prejudice and fear but a man hunt for people who suffered any kind of discernible disability. In ancient Rome and Greece children with disabilities were viewed as signs of weakness and shame. These children were put to death or abandoned, considered a burden on society and humanity. There were ancient societies that did not believe in this process but they were not the majority. The 20th century saw an increase in help for students with disabilities but there was a contradiction in the approach to this help. There was blame placed on the parents for breeding a genetically inferior human and putting the financial burden on the government for their mistake. Fear of these deficiencies spreading lead to a restriction on who could marry and even the sterilization of persons with retardations. In an ease of the sterilization idea people were being put into Ã¢â¬Å"hospitalsÃ¢â¬ to isolate them from the general public by placing them Ã¢â¬Å"with their own kind. Ã¢â¬ In the 1950s more than a million persons in the US had been committed to mental hospitals and institutions. (Hardman, Drew, & Egar, 2011) The First Groups to Fight In the movement of Civil Rights in the 1950s parents of children with disabilities began to push for rights also. In 1949 the United Cerebral Palsy Organization (UCP) and in 1950 the National Association for Retarded Children (NARC) groups were formed to help get accurate information to the public. These organizations wanted to get equal rights for medical treatment, social services and education for persons with disabilities. It was not until President Kennedy stepped in and became an advocate for these groups that the government began to take these groups serious. He had person investment in these rights with his sister Rosemary suffering from intellectual disabilities. Kennedy said in a speech in 1961,Ã¢â¬ This neglect must endÃ¢â¬ ¦We must actÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The subheading above would be used if there are several sections (Hardman, Drew, & Egar, 2011) Legal Cases that Pushed reform I n1972 the Wyatt case in Alabama argued that the facilities people with mental retardation were being put into did nothing to prepare them for a place in society and called these places Ã¢â¬Å"Human WarehousesÃ¢â¬ . These were a series of lawsuits that followed with the moral encouragement of Brown vs. The Board of Education civil rights law. Halderman vs. Pennhurst State School and Hospital, Youngberg vs. Romeo and Homeward Bound vs. Hissom Memorial Center were all influential court cases that brought civil and moral rights of persons with disabilities to the public forum. It was the parental involvement that pushed the government to form groups as advocates for these groups. In 1971 the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizen (PARC) vs. the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania put into light that these children were being denied the right to free and appropriate public education. It was these groups that allow the education for students with any disability to now get the help they need and deserve. Modern Advocacy Groups The main groups that come to mind when Disability advocates are mentioned within the educational system are Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). IDEA is officially known as Public Law 94-142 which lays out the standards and rules for students from ages 3-21 in public schools. This was originally known as Education for All Handicapped ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Act but in 1990 was changed to IDEA. There is restriction for what qualifies as a disability and these are in constant adjustment based on what happens in the education system. Without this ability to add or take away ideas it would become stagnant and useless. The ADA lays out what these disabilities are and what they legally and morally have a right to. Challenges facing Educators The main challenge facing educators is a combination for the push of standardized testing, common core standards and federal assistance being based on those scores. The inclusion of students with disabilities in no different than having a bully or an extreme introvert in your class and the amount of help that is given has risen drastically over the last 40 years. The focus in high school is to prepare students to go into the world and succeed as adults and this applies to students with disabilities also. The main fear I have is that in a push to Ã¢â¬Å"includeÃ¢â¬ these students we are not helping them to succeed just following legal options. We have come full circle from the days of Aristotle and the Greeks but have a long way to go to get to a point where we are doing what is best for every student in our delusional system. There is and will probably always be prejudice in society to one group or another but as teachers we need to step forward and praise differences not separate them. Laws like IDEA and the ADA help parents, schools and teachers have a foundation to build on but it will take more that theory to implement the right actions. The success of these groups and laws are yet to be fully recognized but the potential is there.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2116 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Cause and effect essay Did you like this example? The survival and progression of businesses in the 21st century is highly dependent on the ability of firms to expand beyond their national borders, taking into account the cost effectiveness of expansion and the complexity and risks associated with the companys chosen international business strategy (Peng, Wang, Jiang, 2008). The resources and objectives of a firm, as well as the demand for their product outside their national borders are important in taking the decision to globalise a companys products and/or services (Miller, 1992). Although three strategies are more common in the management literature, namely multi domestic, global and transnational approaches, the fourth strategy available to firms, according to Barlett and Ghoshal (1989) is the international approach to global expansion. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Role and Effect of International Business Strategies" essay for you Create order This essay will analyse the two approaches that differ in local responsiveness and cost pressure for the business, with the international approach as the least responsive and expensive for the company and the transnational approach as the most costly and locally focused from the four options available to companies. To start with, local responsiveness of multinational corporations is often a matter of mutual expectations of the company expanding into a region and the local customers demands and needs (Gomez-Mejia Palich, 1997). For instance, food and beverage companies from the Western world (i.e. the US or the UK) expanding into Asian countries need to integrate certain products in their range that suit the demands of local consumers (Watson, 2006). As such, the role of the transnational approach is to enable companies from a culturally distinct country to penetrate a new market successfully (London Hart, 2004). There are both positive and negative effects of the transnational a pproach. Developing a business model and manufacturing strategies is a costly process for any company and changing this for the purpose of integrating new products specific to a region is an additional financial pressure for multinational companies (Zaheer, 1995). Although the negative impact of local adaptation may deter some firms from adopting this strategy, the success of companies like McDonalds which take this approach proves that the additional costs can increase the chances of global success and the return on investment (ROI) for the company (Luo, 2001). The core advantage of the transnational approach is the potential of multinational firms to compete with local counterparts in a more effective manner through offering local products alongside their already established reputation (Dawar Frost, 1999). High levels of local responsiveness also ensures that the reputation in the new region contributes to the ethical image and the overall CSR of a multinational company (Husted Allen, 2006). Large corporations are often accused of unethical conduct due to the cost competitiveness with the local providers, as international firms often perfect their manufacturing techniques in order to reduce all the time and resource waste, therefore allowing them to compete with local firms (Meyer, 2004). An increasing number of countries have launched campaigns which promote local companies over the international competitors claiming that regional businesses understand the needs and desires of their customer base more, unlike the multinational firms (Kapferer, 2002). This underlines the importance of local responsiveness, as the resistance of local customers decreases when a multinational demonstrates a desire to first understand the locals behaviour and adjust their strategy accordingly when entering a new region (Prahalad Doz, 1999). In spite of the important role and effect of the transnational approach, there are multiple companies which have succeeded despite the ir disregard of the local customers specific needs and desires (Samiee Roth, 1992). These companies opted for internationalisation as a strategy for global expansion, relying on the recognisability of their brand name, logo, specific products, packaging, etc. A successful company which took this approach in their international expansion is Starbucks, who launched their very specific coffee shops across the world aiming to take over the market share of local coffee shops through offering a very specific experience, rather than focusing exclusively on the beverages offered (Harrison, 2005). Although the local Starbucks coffee shops across the world offer some specific products, such as a variety of green tea products in Asian countries, the core product sold by Starbucks is the experience that customers enjoy alongside their chosen beverage (Gaudio, 2003). Whilst it was difficult at start for Starbucks to maintain a standardised approach to the design of their customer experience, ta king over local coffee shop chains and their clientele has proven to be a successful tactic (Loeb, 2013). This international approach therefore reduces the initial cost pressure through taking over a large share of the customers of former cafÃÆ'Ã ©s in the local region and the premises which were built and used for an identical purpose (Barkema Vermeulen, 1998). Rebranding the coffee shops in order to maintain a standard image is less expensive than building coffee shops from scratch, in addition to the existing customer base that the American giant is able to take over (Gaviria, 2012). In consequence, the role of the international approach as an expansion tactic is to allow companies to expand quickly, cost effectively and effortlessly (Contractor, Kumar, Kundu, 2007). The effect of the tactic is a positive one from a financial viewpoint and, more often than not, a negative one from a reputation point of view, as citizens perceive this approach to disregard any specific cultura l aspect of the region that multinationals penetrate. It is, therefore, obvious that each of these two approaches have their advantages and disadvantages for the company aiming to explore a new region, the local competition and the customer base in the country. However, companies must take into account the impact of the global mobility of the workforce and the extent to which social media influences the demands of customers and the reputation of a multinational firm (Okazaki Taylor, 2013). The role and effect of both international business strategies are influenced by these elements, as consistency in a multinationals approach is even more important in the light of individuals travelling on a regular basis for business and work purposes and the ability of people all over the world to share information via social media (Jin, Park, Kim, 2008). In other words, a company must set their priorities from the onset of internationalisation in order to maximise their earning potential an d the international reputation through their chosen tactic for global reach (Vrontis, Thrassou, Lamprianou, 2009). As a result of this, both the role and the effect of the international business strategies are enhanced in the long run, as companies are less able to change their view on the approach to conquering new regions. Well established Western companies must ponder over the decision of investing capital in the transnational approach, as their lack of success of competing against local companies could mean that their financial loss may never be recuperated (Prahalad Doz, 1999). On the other hand, without an adaptation to the locals needs and desires an international companys ability to succeed may be compromised, but the financial impact of this failure will not be as great as that supported by companies who invest capital in adaptation (Solberg, 2002). Companies must take into account all of the influencing factors, particularly those that stem from cultural elements of t he destination country, when opting for an international business strategy (Drogendijk Slangen, 2006). The gains of the company must be maximised through international expansion and the best solution is often dependent on the capital that the multinational is willing to invest in the their global strategy, as well as the market positioning of local competitors and the resistance of local consumers to new and international products or services. The emergence of social media also offers multinational companies an advantage, as the contact between individuals from distinct areas makes it possible for demand in one country for a particular brand to grow through online advertising of particular products (Kaplan Haenlein, 2010). The international tactic is therefore made easy by the ability to promote a company through social media and export products, without any concern for local adaptation, through online shopping. On the other hand, the success of companies with brick and mortar sho ps in new region is significantly higher than that of companies that rely exclusively on online retail (Steinfield, Adelaar, Liu, 2005). In addition to this, not all regions have the same level of trust towards online shopping, as the security concerns in some regions are significantly higher, particularly when no efforts of local adaptation are made by the international firm (Bart, Shankar, Sultan, Urban, 2005). In conclusion, the role and effect of international business strategies are crucial in the success of expanding a business beyond its national borders, but the potential of these can only be maximised when taking into account other elements that contribute to the internationalisation, such as local culture, the demands, needs and wants of customer base targeted, etc. The impact of the chosen strategy must be thoroughly analysed by a firm, as international strategies require consistency over time in the approach taken. In consequence, the advantages and disadvantages pr esented in this essay must be weighed against the multinationals company mission and their future plans in order to opt for one of the two extremes, transnational or internationalisation approach, or the two other options in between, global or multinational approach. Bibliography Barkema, H. G., Vermeulen, F. (1998). International Expansion Through Start-Up or Acquisition: A Learning Perspective. Journal of Academy Management, 41(1), 7-26. Barlett, C. A., Ghoshal, S. (1989). Matrix management: not a structure, a frame of mind. Harvard Business Review, 68(4), 138-145. Bart, Y., Shankar, V., Sultan, F., Urban, G. L. (2005). Are the drivers and role of online trust the same for all web sites and consumers? A large-scale exploratory empirical study. Journal of Marketing, 69(4), 133-152. Contractor, F. J., Kumar, V., Kundu, S. K. (2007). Nature of the relationship between international expansion and performance: The case of emerging market firms. Journal of World Business, 42(4), 401-417. Dawar, N., Frost, T. (1999). Competing with giants: Survival strategies for local companies in emerging markets. Harvard Business Review, 77(1), 119-132. Drogendijk, R., Slangen, A. (2006). Hofstede, Schwartz, or managerial perceptions? The effects of diffe rent cultural distance measures on establishment mode choices by multinational enterprises. International Business Review, 15(4), 361-380. Gaudio, R. P. (2003). Coffeetalk: StarbucksÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¢ and the commercialization of casual conversation. Language in Society, 32(5), 659-691. Gaviria, D. (2012, April 5). An American Coffee Company in Paris Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Starbucks Rebrands French Stores. Retrieved June 16, 2015, from Branding Magazine: https://www.brandingmagazine.com/2012/04/05/an-american-coffee-company-in-paris-starbucks-rebrands-french-stores/ Gomez-Mejia, L. R., Palich, L. E. (1997). Cultural Diversity and the Performance of Multinational Firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(2), 309-335. Harrison, J. S. (2005). Exporting a North American Concept to Asia Starbucks in China. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 46(2), 275-283. Husted, B. W., Allen, D. B. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in the multinational enterprise: strategic and i nstitutional approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(1), 838-849. Jin, B., Park, J. Y., Kim, J. (2008). Cross-cultural examination of the relationships among firm reputation, e-satisfaction, e-trust, and e-loyalty. International Marketing Review, 25(3), 324-337. Kapferer, J. N. (2002). Is there really no hope for local brands? The Journal of Brand Management, 9(3), 163-170. Kaplan, A., Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68. Loeb, W. (2013, January 31). Starbucks: Global Coffee Giant Has New Growth Plans. Retrieved June 16, 2015, from Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/walterloeb/2013/01/31/starbucks-global-coffee-giant-has-new-growth-plans/ London, T., Hart, S. L. (2004). Reinventing strategies for emerging markets: beyond the transnational model. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(1), 350-370. Luo, Y. (2001). Determinants of local responsiv eness: perspectives from foreign subsidiaries in an emerging market. Journal of Management, 27(4), 451-477. Meyer, K. E. (2004). Perspectives on multinational enterprises in emerging economies. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(1), 259-276. Miller, K. D. (1992). A Framework for Integrated Risk Management in International Business. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(2), 311-331. Okazaki, S., Taylor, C. R. (2013). Social media and international advertising: theoretical challenges and future directions. International Marketing Review, 30(1), 56-71. Peng, M. W., Wang, D. Y., Jiang, Y. (2008). An institution-based view of international business strategy: A focus on emerging economies. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(5), 920-936. Prahalad, C. K., Doz, Y. L. (1999). The Multinational Mission: Balancing Local Demands and Global Vision. New York: Simon Schuster. Samiee, S., Roth, K. (1992). The Influence of Global Marketing Standard ization on Performance. Journal of Marketing, 56(2), 1-17. Solberg, C. A. (2002). The perennial issue of adaptation or standardization of international marketing communication: organizational contingencies and performance. Journal of International Marketing, 10(3), 1-21. Steinfield, C., Adelaar, T., Liu, F. (2005). Click and mortar strategies viewed from the web: A content analysis of features illustrating integration between retailers online and offline presence. Electronic Markets, 15(3), 199-212. Vrontis, D., Thrassou, A., Lamprianou, I. (2009). International marketing adaptation versus standardisation of multinational companies. International Marketing Review, 26(4/5), 477-500. Watson, J. L. (2006). Golden Arches East: McDonalds in East Asia (2nd ed.). Stanford: Stanford University Press. Zaheer, S. (1995). Overcoming the liability of foreignness. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), 341-363.